Civilization and Its Discontents is considered Freud's most brilliant work. In it he states his views on the broad question of man's place in the world. It has been praised, dissected, lambasted, interpreted, and reinterpreted. Originally published in 1930, it seeks to answer several questions fundamental to human society and its organization—What influences led to the creation of civilization? Why and how did it come to be? What determines civilization’s trajectory? This process, argues Freud, is an inherent quality of civilization that instills perpetual feelings of discontent in its citizens. Freud's theme is that what works for civilization doesn't necessarily work for man. Man, by nature aggressive and egotistical, seeks self-satisfaction.
It stands as a brilliant summary of the views on culture from a psychoanalytic perspective that he had been developing since the turn of the century. It is both witness and tribute to the late theory of mind—the so-called structural theory, with its stress on aggression, indeed the death drive, as the pitiless adversary of eros. Civilization and Its Discontents is one of the last of Freud's books, written in the decade before his death and first published in German in 1929. In it he states his views on the broad question of man's place in the world, a place Freud defines in terms of ceaseless conflict between the individual's quest for freedom and society's demand for conformity. Freud's theme is that what works for civilization doesn't necessarily work for man. Man, by nature aggressive and egotistical, seeks self-satisfaction. But culture inhibits his instinctual drives. The result is a pervasive and familiar guilt. Of the various English translations of Freud's major works to appear in his lifetime, only one was authorized by Freud himself: The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud under the general editorship of James Strachey. Freud approved the overall editorial plan, specific renderings of key words and phrases, and the addition of valuable notes, from bibliographical and explanatory. Many of the translations were done by Strachey himself; the rest were prepared under his supervision. The result was to place the Standard Edition in a position of unquestioned supremacy over all other existing versions.
"Civilization" is a constantly invoked term. It is used by both politicians and scholars. How useful, in fact, is this term? Civilization and Its Contents traces the origins of the concept in the eighteenth century. It shows its use as a colonial ideology, and then as a support for racism. The term was extended to a dead society, Egyptian civilization, and was appropriated by Japan, China, and Islamic countries. This latter development lays the groundwork for the contemporary call for a "dialogue of civilizations." The author proposes instead that today the use of the term "civilization" has a global meaning, with local variants recognized as cultures. It may be more appropriate, however, to abandon the name "civilization" and to focus on a new understanding of the civilizing process.
This book takes a serious look at Nietzsche as political thinker and relates his political ideas to the dominant traditions of modern political thought. It also demonstrates Rousseau's crucial role in Nietzsche's understanding of modernity.
French Civilization and Its Discontents: Nationalism, Colonialism, Race explores the ways in which considerations of difference, especially colonialism, post-colonialism, and race, have shaped French culture and French studies in the modern era. Rejecting traditional assimilationist notions of French national identity, contributors to this groundbreaking volume demonstrate how literature, history and other aspects of what is considered French civilization have been shaped by processes of creolization and differentiation.
The book consists of three essays and is an extension of Freud’s work on psychoanalytic theory as a means of generating hypotheses about historical events. Freud hypothesizes that Moses was not Hebrew, but actually born into Ancient Egyptian nobility and was probably a follower of Akhenaten, an ancient Egyptian monotheist. Freud contradicts the biblical story of Moses with his own retelling of events, claiming that Moses only led his close followers into freedom during an unstable period in Egyptian history after Akhenaten (ca. 1350 BCE) and that they subsequently killed Moses in rebellion and later combined with another monotheistic tribe in Midian based on a volcanic God, Jahweh. Freud explains that years after the murder of Moses, the rebels regretted their action, thus forming the concept of the Messiah as a hope for the return of Moses as the Saviour of the Israelites. Freud said that the guilt from the murder of Moses is inherited through the generations; this guilt then drives the Jews to religion to make them feel better.
Brings together international law's most outspoken 'discontents' to expose international law's complicity in the ongoing economic and financial global crises.
Racial Stigma on the Hollywood Screen from WWII to the Present charts how the dominant white and black binary of American racial discourse influences Hollywood s representation of the Asian. The Orientalist buddy film draws a scenario in which two buddies, one white and one black, transcend an initial hatred for one another by joining forces against a foreign Asian menace. Alongside an analysis of multiple genres of film, Brian Locke argues that this triangulated rendering of race ameliorates the longstanding historical contradiction between U.S. democratic ideals and white America s persistent domination over blacks.
Whereas many recommend a paradigm change in order to cope with modern complexities, Caravantes and Bjur urge executives not to change their operating paradigms, but rather to become paradigm competent, that is, knowledgeable and competent in several ways of understanding and analyzing the working world. Four major paradigms are described: positive science, quantum physics, oriental mysticism, and existentialism. The authors recognize that executives often are obligated to make important choices despite insufficient data and the inability to predict future outcomes. Hunches that one action is to be preferred over others are examples of high-level managers making use of more-than-rational intuitions - defined as knowing without knowing how you know. The authors think of this as a kind of subconscious "magic" not taught or developed in the curricula of schools of management, where the emphasis is on technical rationality and technique. The authors emphasize the importance of subconscious perceptions in enabling an executive's access to infra-conscious, extra-rational, or "magic" capabilities, and discuss some modern techniques that can be used to enhance an executive's magic and charisma. Magic and Management is a fourth book co-authored by Bjur and Caravantes, until now published and marketed in Brazil. Their work is based on three decades of multi-cultural analysis and observation of management theory as it is practiced in many different countries. This work is designed for the experienced manager who desires to enhance personal knowledge and discover inherent, possibly hidden, abilities to excel in leadership.