Focus Group: A Practical Guide for Applied Research was the standard for learning how to conduct a focus group. This highly acclaimed book in its third edition includes numerous updates and improvements: - Vignettes drawn from small and large focus groups that illustrate problems that come up and effective ways to resolve the issues. - Designing questions for asking effective questions to draw out a group and how to refine them based on the group's responses. - Collaborative Approach updated to address the latest ways to implement the empowerment and action research. - Budgeting how to more effectively budget for a focus group - Coding how to more effectively use existing software packages to code and analyze the results of a focus group.
This new, updated edition of the widely cited classic offers a unique blend of theory and practice in a single, easy to read source. The Second Edition of Focus Groups: Theory and Practice provides a systematic treatment of the design, conduct, and interpretation of focus group discussions within the context of social science research and theory.
The extensively revised edition of the best-selling Focus Groups as Qualitative Research continues to provide an excellent guide for researchers across the disciplines. Reflecting the many changes that have occurred in the study of focus groups in recent years, the book begins with an updated introduction offering a discussion of current social science approaches to focus groups. Expanded coverage on the comparison of focus groups to individual interviews follows, and there is more material on the strengths and weaknesses of focus groups. The section on self-contained focus groups has also been expanded. Subsequent chapters have been revised to include examples from social scientists who have established their own practices and methodological research on focus groups. In conclusion, the author offers future directions and references that take into account the explosive growth of focus groups as a research tool for all social scientists.
Traditional language teaching typically results in limited foreign language proficiency. Communicative approaches tend to produce greater fluency, but less accuracy. A potential solution to this dilemma is focus on form. Focus on form respects students internal linguistic syllabus, drawing their attention to problematic linguistic features during communicative activities, and thus providing an alternative to methodologies which treat accuracy and fluency separately. This volume examines theoretical foundations, empirical research, and a range of possible pedagogical implementations of focus on form in classroom language teaching.
The grammar of focus has been studied in generative grammar from its inception. It has been the subject of intense, detailed cross-linguistic investigation for over 20 years, particularly within the Principles and Parameters framework. It is appropriate at this point, therefore, to take stock. Appraisal at this particular point is all the more legitimate because it comes at a time of general evaluation of the results of the profound activity that has characterized the Principles and Parameters framework. This general assessment has produced a radical new direction within that framework. The volume starts off with an introductory chapter that aims to provide an outline for the assessment, to be followed by an overview of the evolution of the study of focus in generative grammar, and a recapitulation of the principal issues associated with focus. These issues are taken up in the remaining chapters of the book, where various grammatical means of marking focus (as well as grammaticalization of focus marking) are analyzed in a wide variety of languages.
Papers presented at a workshop, Focus and background in Romance languages, that convened during the 30th Romanistentag, in Vienna, Austria, 23-27 September 2007.
This collection of papers examines the theoretical, psychological and descriptive approaches to focus.
As one of the most popular tools for gathering information in today's marketplace, focus groups require understanding of purpose and good grounding in the technique to be effective. In The Handbook for Focus Group Research, Second Edition, Thomas L. Greenbaum provides the latest information on conducting effective focus groups. New chapters in this 1997 edition discuss the technology revolution, globalization of focus groups, physician focus groups, and the effective management of field services and recruiting. With more than 20 years of experience in focus group research, Tom Greenbaum shows the reader in this essential guide how to maximize the effectiveness of focus groups in thorough discussions of moderators and their techniques, escalating costs, facilities, and careers. This book is essential for professionals and scholars interested in marketing and marketing research.
The notion of focus structure in this work refers to the distinction between categorical, thetic and identificational sentences. The central claim is that the syntactic representation of every sentence has to encode which of these types of focus structure is realized. This claim is discussed in great detail with respect to syntax, intonation and semantics within the framework of the Minimalist Program. It is shown that the incorporation of focus structure into syntax offers new perspectives for a solution of vexing problems in syntax and semantics. For example, fronting (preposing, 'topicalisation') is treated as a syntactic operation which clearly belongs to core grammar, i.e. is not optional or 'stylistic'; the semantic notion of quantifier raising is dispensed with in favour of a focus structural treatment of phenomena which gave rise to it. The book appeals to generative linguists and to functional linguists who do not believe in an unbridgeable gap between the formal and functional analysis of language.
This monograph focuses on an interesting typological property shared by four languages: the ungrammaticality of multiple wh-questions in Irish, Berber, Italian and Somali. It contains a broad discussion of data related to the grammar of wh-questions, a comparative analysis of wh-constructions in the four languages, and a theoretical account for the observed phenomenon. The analysis is based on the minimalist syntax theory as developed by Chomsky since 1995. It takes up the standard assumption that wh-phrases are typical representatives of elements bearing new information, in theoretical terms referred to as information focus. Most importantly, in the languages without multiple wh-questions the information focus is licensed in a unique syntactic position. The basic claim is that languages with unique focus are languages without multiple wh-questions. The analysis makes possible the classification of the languages without multiple wh-questions into the crosslinguistic typology of wh-constructions. Furthermore, this book is a contribution to the better understanding of information structure in natural languages, especially of focusing phenomena.