This volume offers perspectives on the theme of surprise crossing philosophical, phenomenological, scientific, psycho-physiology, psychiatric, and linguistic boundaries. The main question it examines is whether surprise is an emotion. It uses two main theoretical frameworks to do so: psychology, in which surprise is commonly considered a primary emotion, and philosophy, in which surprise is related to passions as opposed to reason. The book explores whether these views on surprise are satisfying or sufficient. It looks at the extent to which surprise is also a cognitive phenomenon and primitively embedded in language, and the way in which surprise is connected to personhood, the interpersonal, and moral emotions. Many philosophers of different traditions, a number of experimental studies conducted over the last decades, recent works in linguistics, and ancestral wisdom testimonies refer to surprise as a crucial experience of both rupture and openness in bodily and inner life. However, surprise is a theme that has not been dealt with directly and systematically in philosophy, in the sciences, in linguistics, or in spiritual traditions. This volume accomplishes just that.
Description of human behavior which sees all behavior as aimed at attaining goals.
Cognitive behavior therapy does not typically include the use of emotion in its treatment protocols. This book addresses this omission with a discussion of the interplay between thoughts and emotions as vital to the therapeutic process. It allows clients to apply what they learn in therapy sessions to daily life.
There is considerable interest in and growing recognition of the emotional domain in product development. The relationship between the user and the product is paramount in industry, which has led to major research investments in this area. Traditional ergonomic approaches to design have concentrated on the user's physical and cognitive abil
Philosophical theories of emotions, and to an extent some theories of scientific psychology, represent attempts to capture the essence of emotions basically as they are conceived in common sense psychology. Although there are problems, the success of explanations of our behavior in terms of believes, desires and emotions creates a presumption that, at some level of abstraction, they reflect important elements in our psychological nature. It is incumbent on a theory of emotions to provide an account of two salient facts about emotions as conceived in common sense psychology. As intentional states, emotions have representational and rational properties: emotions represent states of affairs; and they are rationally related to other mental representations, figure in rational explanations of behavior, and are open to rational assessment. Emotions also have a close relationship to a range of non-intentional phenomena: in typical cases, emotions involve physiological changes, usually associated with the activation of the autonomic nervous system, which are proprioceptively experienced; and they often involve behavioral tendencies, as well.
This work argues that cause events, being the most tangible component of emotion, provide a rich dimension of how emotions should be classified. While it is often claimed that emotional concepts cannot be defined, this work views emotion as a response triggered by actual or perceived events, specifically focusing on the interaction between five primary emotions (Happiness, Sadness, Fear, Anger, and Surprise) and cause events. Cause events are examined in terms of two dimensions, namely transitivity and epistemicity. By incorporating the semantic and syntactic information of emotion cause events, this representation of emotion not only provides deep linguistic criteria of emotion cause events, but also offers an event-based approach to emotion classification. A text-driven, rule-based system for detecting the causes of emotion is then developed to establish the validity of the proposed linguistic model for emotion detection and classification. The system shows promising results.
Gut Reactions is an interdisciplinary defense of the claim that emotions are perceptions in a double sense. First of all, they are perceptions of changes in the body, but, through the body, they also allow us to literally perceive danger, loss, and other matters of concern. This proposal, which Prinz calls the embodied appraisal theory, reconciles the long standing debate between those who say emotions are cognitive and those who say they are noncognitive. The basic idea behind embodied appraisals is captured in the familiar notion of a "gut reaction," which has been overlooked by much emotion research. Prinz also addresses emotional valence, emotional consciousness, and the debate between evolutionary psychologists and social constructionists.
Surprise is treated as an affect in Aristotelian philosophy as well as in Cartesian philosophy. In experimental psychology, surprise is considered to be an emotion. In phenomenology, it is only addressed indirectly in phenomenology (Husserl, Heidegger, Levinas), with the important exception of Ricœur and Maldiney; it is reduced to a break in cognition by cognitivists (Dennett). Only recently was it broached in linguistics, with a focus on lexico-syntactic categories. As for the expression of surprise, it has been studied in connection with evidentiality in languages that encode surprise morphosyntactically. However, how surprise is encoded in languages that lack an evidential morphosyntactic system has been largely unexplored. This book provides new insights into the dynamics of surprise based on a heuristic hypothesis tested against the investigation of time, language and emotion. It is intended to arouse the interest of a multidisciplinary audience keen on crossing the disciplinary borders of phenomenology, cognitive sciences, and pragmatics. The theoretical approaches adopted in this collection of articles rely on experiments and corpus data. They advance knowledge by building on robust empirical results coming from psychology, microphenomenology, linguistics and physiology.
Emotion in Interaction offers a collection of original studies that explore emotion in naturally occurring spoken interaction.
Emotion, by Annett Schirmer, is a comprehensive text that integrates traditional psychological theories and cutting-edge neuroscience research to explain the nature and role of emotions in human functioning. Written in an engaging style, the book explores emotions at the behavioral, physiological, mental, and neurofunctional (i.e., chemical, metabolic, and structural) levels, and examines each in a broad context, touching on different theoretical perspectives, regulatory processes, development, and culture, among others. Providing greater insight and depth than existing texts, the book offers a holistic view of the field, giving students a broader understanding of the mechanisms underlying emotions and enabling them to appreciate the role emotions play in their lives. In dedicated chapters, the text covers past and current theories of emotion, individual emotions and their bodily representation, the role of emotions for behavior and cognition, as well as interindividual differences.