This book investigates to what extent the quality of eligible collateral is able to explain inflation. Addressing this question, hypotheses derived from the Theory of Property Economics by Heinsohn & Steiger are tested. Data are collected using a questionnaire, answered by central banks. An index of the quality of eligible collateral is constructed. Regression analyses are performed based on a sample of 62 countries for the period 1990 to 2003. A negative, robust and statistically significant correlation between inflation and the quality of eligible collateral is found. Central bank independence cannot contribute to the explanation of inflation. The result supports the theory of Heinsohn & Steiger: Securitisation of central bank lending is crucial for price stability.
Building upon foundational and groundbreaking economic theory, Alvarado offers a view of the world based on hard facts and reality, rather than the simplified versions proffered by ideological agendas. The real-world functioning of assets, credit, money, and banking are brought to bear, rather than scare stories intended to frighten one into various forms of political action.
The events of the past six months have demonstrated the fragility of the global financial system and raised fundamental questions about the effectiveness of the response by private and public sector institutions. The report assesses the vulnerabilities that the system is facing and offers tentative conclusions and policy lessons. The report reflects information available up to March 21, 2008.
Central bank collateral policies came under pressure with the 2007-08 financial market crisis. This paper addresses the rationale for and constraints in taking collateral, and recent practices in different collateral frameworks. It then considers the risks of adverse selection. The paper concludes that (i) the collateral framework needs to include market incentives; (ii) central banks face trade-offs between risk and counterparty access; (iii) emerging markets may see pressure on collateral policies in coming years; and (iv) further work is required to develop pricing incentives and the structure of central bank facilities, both during normal times and in periods of market stress.
The first book-length study of the importance of collateral frameworks in monetary policy, focusing on the Eurozone and euro crisis.
The banking sector in Europe is subject to continuous change. Banks are taking up new types of business in order to diversify their risk; new players such as insurance companies, credit card providers, and non-financial companies enter market segments which used to be the territory of commercial banks; and banks increasingly operate outside their home country or merge with cross-border partners. These developments, triggered by new information technology, disintermediation, deregulation, and the arrival of the Euro, change the landscape in the banking sector and raise a number of policy issues. What are the implications for competition among banks? How can financial stability best be maintained in this changing market? Is there a conflict between increasing competition among banks and stability?